Trends Biochem Sci The network topology is conserved across species, but genes within the transcriptional network evolve rapidly and differ between mouse and human. Nat Rev Immunol 9: They are the front line innate defense against pathogens, drive appropriate acquired immune responses, initiate inflammation, and promote resolution and repair. Csf1r is itself a macrophage marker gene. An expression atlas of human primary cells: So, taken together, the data provide a picture of the transcriptional network required to become a professional phagocyte and provide a signature that distinguishes macrophages from other cell types.

Semin Cancer Biol The signaling pathway from the LPS receptor, TLR4, leading to transcriptional activation, has been reviewed in detail by others , There is no set of genes that is co-expressed in large datasets that could be used as a signature of a macrophage activation state. The lower part of the panel B shows the location, and the time course of induction, of four separate enhancers, upstream, downstream, and within the SERPINA1 gene. Gordon S, Taylor PR. Many transcription factors were rapidly repressed during the differentiation of THP-1 cells.

Nat Immunol Interestingly, the macrophage-restricted transcription factor, TFEC, appears to have a specific function in the inducible expression of a subset of IL4-response genes Macrophage biology in development, homeostasis and disease. A gene expression atlas of the domestic pig.

Transcriptional network analysis reached a pinnacle in a study of a model system of human macrophage differentiation An assessment of the relationship between the two mechanisms depends upon the interpretation of lineage-trace studies in mice that are open to criticism 8.


A promoter-level mammalian expression atlas.

Frontiers | The Many Alternative Faces of Macrophage Activation | Immunology

Macrophage plasticity and polarization: A transcriptional perspective on human macrophage biology. This response involves the sequential induction of hundreds of genes and includes a complex intrinsic and inducible feedback control network [see below, Ref. Coregulation of transcription factor binding and nucleosome occupancy through DNA features of mammalian enhancers. Alternate transcription of 201-14 toll-like receptor signaling cascade.

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We used this tool to identify co-regulated genes in the mouse BioGPS dataset 26 and in other busibess 27human 28and busness gene expression data As they enter an inflammatory site in vivomacrophages are exposed to a complex gemisch of signals and the cellular phenotype changes with time.

Genome Res BioGPS is one example of a new era of emerging user-friendly portals see text footnote 1 that enable the analysis of complex transcriptomic data.

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Ubsiness immune activity conditions the effect of regulatory variants upon monocyte gene expression. The Cells of the Mononuclear Phagocyte System The mononuclear phagocyte system MPS 1 pkan a family of professional phagocytes derived from hematopoietic progenitor cells under the influence of specific growth factors. Each stimulus produced a stereotypical response 77but there was also variation in expression of individual genes, with eQTLs associated with the majority of loci.

A macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor-green fluorescent protein transgene is expressed throughout the mononuclear phagocyte system of the mouse. Semin Cancer Biol A dual cis-regulatory code links IRF8 to constitutive and inducible gene expression in macrophages.


Simple combinations of lineage-determining transcription factors prime cis-regulatory elements required for macrophage and B cell identities.

Transcriptional network dynamics in macrophage activation. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Enhancer RNAs and regulated transcriptional programs.

Because the stromal component of a tumor biopsy is not uniform, each sample differs in its relative macrophage content.

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Modular transcriptional repertoire analyses of adults with systemic lupus erythematosus reveal distinct type I and type II interferon signatures. The interferon signature businsss autoimmune diseases. J Immunol The problem with nomenclature in macrophage activation prompted a group of researchers in the field to try and establish a common framework Many transcription factors were rapidly repressed during the differentiation of THP-1 cells.

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Coexpression analysis of large cancer datasets provides insight into the cellular phenotypes of the tumour microenvironment. Features of the regulatory cascade are exemplified by the detailed analysis of the response to LPS.

Nucleic Acids Res A lineage of myeloid cells independent of Myb and hematopoietic stem cells.